[Objectives] The purpose of this study was to provide technical support for high-yield cultivation of major crops in Burundi, thereby increasing local farmers’ income and promoting sustainable development of agriculture in Burundi. [Methods] In the IMBO and MOSO test stations of the Burundi Academy of Agricultural Sciences and the Burundi Fruit and Vegetable Extension and Service Center, soil testing and formulated fertilization test and demonstration was carried out in rice, maize and cabbage. The test set up three treatments, soil testing and formulated fertilization (STFF), local routine fertilization (RF) and non-fertilization (CK) to investigate the effects of soil testing and formulated fertilization on the yield and economic benefit of the crops. [Results] In the plot test, the yield and net economic benefit of rice, maize and cabbage were both highest in the STFF treatment. Compared with those in the RF treatment, the yield of rice, maize and cabbage increased by 19.0%, 25.7% and 33.0%, respectively, and the net economic benefit increased by 4 292, 2 837 and 8 232 yuan/ha, respectively. In the field test, the yield and net economic benefit of rice, maize and cabbage were also both highest in the STFF treatment. The yield increased by 18.1%, 24.3% and 25.9%, respectively, and the net economic benefit increased by 4 142, 2 881 and 8 665 yuan/ha, respectively compared with those in the RF treatment. [Conclusions] Soil testing and formulated fertilization not only increased rice, maize and cabbage yield per unit area, but also increased farmers' income in Burundi. It is one of the important technical measures to promote the increase of agricultural production and income in Burundi.