According to the recent practice in Laopingzi Village, Jiaopingdu Town, Luquan Yi and Miao Autonomous County (Luquan County hereinafter) in dry and hot valley of Jinsha River, the development of Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieb. et Zucc planting industry can help farmers gradually get rid of poverty and achieve a virtuous cycle of ecological environment. It is a sustainable poverty alleviation way. Based on the three aspects of soil properties, climatic conditions, and topographical conditions influencing the growth of Z. schinifolium, this paper selected eight evaluation factors to establish a suitability evaluation system for Z. schinifolium, used the analytic hierarchy process to determine the indicator, and determined the weight of the evaluation indicators. Besides, it calculated the comprehensive suitability index of land suitability of Z. schinifolium and evaluated the suitability of Z. schinifolium land in Jiaopingdu Town of Luquan County. The results showed that the suitable area for the cultivation of Z. schinifolium in Jiaopingdu Town reached 7 270.78 ha, accounting for 88.69 % of the study area; the area of unsuitable land was 922.07 ha, accounting for 11.31% of the study area. Among the suitable land areas, the high suitability area reached 562.99 ha, accounting for 7.79%; the moderate suitability area was 2 206.76 ha, accounting for 28.61%; the low suitability area was 4 599.03 ha, accounting for 63.6%. Based on the results of suitability evaluation, it came up with pertinent recommendations for the development of Z. schinifolium industry in Jiaopingdu Town.