In the Report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, it stated that we must put the ecological safety and green development in the first place. To achieve rural revitalization, ecological livability is the most important factor. Taking Luquan Yi and Miao Autonomous County (national level poor county) in Jinsha River valley of Yunnan Province as an example, using DPSIR (drivers, pressures, states, impacts, responses) model, this paper established an evaluation indicator system. Besides, using the entropy method, it determined the indicator weight. In addition, it evaluated the land ecological security of Luquan County since the implementation of targeted poverty alleviation policy (2013-2017) using multi-factor comprehensive evaluation method. This study shows that Luquan County has improved its ecological security in the past five years. The ecological status has gone through four stages, from sensitive state to severe state to critical safety to excellent ecology, and the value of the comprehensive index of land ecological security shows a rising trend. Through analyzing the ecological security value of each criterion hierarchy, it obtained the main factors affecting the ecological security of Luquan County. On this basis, it came up with feasible measures and recommendations for studying the ecological security of land in the region, so as to guide the rational use of land and sustainable economic development, provide a reference for the implementation of rural revitalization strategies, and promote the construction of regional ecological civilization.