As one of the most fragile alpine plateau and canyon areas in China, the upper reaches of the Yangtze River are the key areas of ecological construction in China. It is also a key area for poverty alleviation in the country. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the dual goals of poverty reduction and ecological environment construction, and explore a win-win road of ecological construction and poverty alleviation in line with the reality of the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. Taking Xueshan Township, Luquan Yi and Miao Autonomous County, Yunnan Province, which is located in the poor mountainous area of the upper reaches of the Yangtze River as an example, based on many field investigations and existing investigation and statistical data, this paper analyzes the current situation and main problems of land use in Xueshan Township, and then puts forward measures and suggestions for rational utilization of land resources in Xueshan Township. This can provide a necessary reference for the next implementation of rural revitalization strategy and ecological construction.