The main aim is a verification whether dairy cow breeders in the Czech Republic are able to compete and have the same conditions for milk production as the state of European Union after the Czech Republic´s accession to the European Union. This evaluation is above all in the main cost items for milk depending on the amount of milk yield of cows. A partial aim is an evaluation of development of number of dairy cows and milk production in the monitored period 2000 – 2015. This judgement is used for monitoring of effects of quotas on the number and production part of dairy cows. Also the development of milk purchase prices was evaluated in the original EU 15 states and the Czech Republic. Within the evaluation of the main aim, four main cost items influencing the total dairy cow breeding were judged. The main items are costs for feed, labour costs, costs for veterinary care, and cost for breeding services. This main cost items have an effect beside the milk production on the health state of dairy cows and on reproduction because with the right function of reproductive organs a new onset of lactation curve happens and thereby an induction of higher milk yields with use of high-quality feeds. The used data are based on interview survey in milk producers.