Conducting a third-party assessment on targeted poverty alleviation can effectively avoid the disadvantage that local government plays as both athlete (i.e. performer of poverty alleviation work) and referee (i.e. referee for poverty alleviation effect) in poverty alleviation to ensure the truth of poverty alleviation, and therefore, it is an important part of the work to win the battle against poverty. Since 2016, the third-party assessment teams from colleges and universities for targeted poverty alleviation have achieved good results and performance in the assessment on both the effectiveness of targeted poverty alleviation work and the exit of poor counties in China, and they have made due contributions to the cause of poverty alleviation. However, as a new thing, third-party assessment obviously has some problems, mainly including the following: subjective understanding on the long-term nature of rural poverty alleviation is insufficient, and there is a lack of long-term considerations and related mechanism for third-party assessment; affected by policies and institutions, most of the existing third-party assessment teams from colleges and universities have not regarded third-party assessment of targeted poverty alleviation as a cause, and they lack the motivation to actively study the assessment business; and the third-party assessment staff from colleges and universities for targeted poverty alleviation have low stability and high mobility, not conducive to the long-term construction of assessment teams. In order to establish long-term poverty alleviation and prevention mechanisms, these issues must be addressed squarely and relevant countermeasures need to be taken actively to effectively build a long-term mechanism for building third-party assessment teams from colleges and universities for targeted poverty alleviation.