Farmers’ adoption behavior of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is a big factor in the sustainability of agricultural growth in the areas of economic, environmental, and social development. This study explores the antecedents of adoption behavior of multiple CSA, including soil and water management, yield management, and weather risk management, among farmers in Vietnam’s Mekong Delta. The study adopts a primary data sample of 350 rice farmers, using a multinomial logit model. The findings indicate that the most critical antecedents of CSA adoption among farmers include perceived climate change impact, educational level, farmland size, access to credit, social capital, access to extension, secure farmland tenure, and constraint to market. The results and policy implications are discussed and proposed.