The aim of the paper is to evaluate the effects of EU support for afforestation in Poland. The research concerns afforestation measures under three subsequent Rural Development Programmes: 2004-2006, 2007-2013, 2014-2020. The examined period covers the years between 2004 and 2018. The analysis indicated that during the examined years about 80,000 ha of land were afforested. Thanks to the measure, forest area in Poland increased by 0.87%. The highest effect of the measure was achieved under RDP 2004-2006. The share of afforested area under that RDP was estimated to be at nearly 50% of total afforested area and in the case of RDP 2007-2013 at 46.7%. Under the current RDP 2014-2020, the interest of eligible agents in the measure and results are very modest. The afforested area, after five years of the financial perspective, was thirteen times lower than during three years of RDP 2004-2006. Although a rather unambitious target was set under RDP 2014-2020 – support for 82,000 ha of afforested land – small interest in new afforestation under the measure will probably be a barrier for achieving the target. The modest result is caused by a few factors, such as terms of the measure or farmer interest in different forms of support for agricultural activity.