The problem of food insecurity of small-scale farms is often addressed in the literature, but there is a research gap with regard to food insecurity of small-scale farms in developed countries. This issue is important especially in countries with a fragmented agrarian structure, including Poland. Hence, this article aims to identify the level of food insecurity of small-scale farms in Poland and its determinants. It is based on a survey (710 questionnaires) distributed among small-scale farmers in Poland. The survey was conducted in 2018 and included the modified Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). According to the HFIAS algorithm, 56.5% of small-scale farms in Poland declared to be food secure, 23.5% of farms were classified as mild food insecure, 11.3% as moderate food insecure and 8.6% as severe food insecure. In order to find determinants of the level of food insecurity of small-scale farms, a zero-inflated Poisson regression model was used. Results revealed that farm households with an older manager, with children, with a higher disposable income per capita and using own products in the daily diet experienced a lower level of food insecurity. Farm households producing dairy cows and having five or more household members experienced higher food insecurity.