Previously prominent lake – the Aral Sea being rich in biodiversity maintained the livelihood of people. It ranked fourth place according to its size and it began shrinking in 1960. Its desiccation has triggered various problems which could be distinguished into three groups: environmental, social and economic. Due to timeframe and resource/data limitations not all categories of problems would be covered in this study. Some of the environmental issues will be taken into account, while all of them are interlinked (creating a vicious circle). But in the center of attention is the analysis of the social and economic impact of the Aral Sea desiccation in the region of KP. The literature review showed that most of the research is conducted in the agricultural sector, and the desiccation implications were considered more from the aspect of causes, missing out the long term effects of the Aral Sea desiccation. These long term effects are significant in the development of the region from social – health aspect, as health can affect the productivity, unemployment which means no/low income that in turn causes poverty and poverty is one of the main reasons for the environmental degradation to occur. It is a vicious circle of environmental degradation to worsen with health and simultaneously to affect the economic state. This study researched the health effects of the Aral Sea desiccation and with the help of ‘ecosystem approach’ pointed out the long term consequences of the currently existing health issues to the economy of KP.