The effectiveness of targeted poverty alleviation is related to whether China can build a well-off society on schedule. Poverty alleviation is an arduous and urgent major issue in China, and the Party and the government have always been very concerned about and attached importance to poverty alleviation. At present, China’s poverty alleviation and development faces enormous pressures and challenges. Some poor areas actually shoulder the heavy responsibility of ecological protection in the process of national development. The contradiction between economic development and ecological protection is intensifying. Objectively, these poor areas have made outstanding contributions and great sacrifices for the country’s ecological construction. Therefore, it is necessary to balance the two goals of poverty reduction and building an ecological environment and explore a win-win path that is in line with the actual ecological protection and poverty alleviation and development in poverty-stricken areas. Ecological compensation for poverty alleviation is one of the basic contents of the “five-batch” project of China to implement poverty alleviation. Cultivated land is a very important ecosystem on land. On the basis of studying the ecological effects of cultivated land, the implementation of cultivated land ecological compensation has become an important part of the research on ecological poverty alleviation. On the one hand, ecological compensation for cultivated land can support or promote poverty alleviation and development. On the other hand, poverty alleviation and development policies also provide practical opportunities for cultivated land ecological compensation. Carrying out research on cultivated land ecological compensation and practicing this new direction and new poverty alleviation mode is of great significance to promote and improve the construction of ecological system for cultivated land, targeted poverty alleviation and development, and ecological protection of cultivated land. On the basis of combing the national ecological poverty alleviation strategy related policies and sorting out cultivated land ecological compensation theory research, this paper discusses the new mode of cultivated land ecological compensation to assist poverty alleviation and development, reveals the main problems in the current research and practice of cultivated land ecological compensation, and puts forward some suggestions for improving the ecological compensation for cultivated land to promote poverty alleviation and development.