The present study was planned to analyze the yield gap of wheat and its production constraints in order to explore the approaches for narrowing the yield gap of wheat in different wheat-rice rotation regions of Anhui Province. The production status and limiting factors of wheat in three rice-wheat rotation regions which are named Region I, Region II and Region III were surveyed by using participatory rural appraisal method. The personnel, who were engaged in wheat production in rice-wheat rotation regions of Anhui Province, mainly ageing from 41 to 60, accounted for 79% of the total personnel in the regions. There were significant differences in yield of wheat which was planted after rice in Anhui. The yield per hectare was ranging from 8 907.00 to 2 700.00 kg from north to south with an average of 4 978.5 kg, and the rank of overall average yields at province level was Region I (5 685.60 kg/ha)> Region II (5 600.10 kg/ha)> Region III (3 048.60 kg/ha). The average yield gap of wheat in wheat-rice rotation regions at province level was up to 2 637.00 kg/ha, and the extreme yield gaps per hectare within the regions were 2 778.00 (Region I), 2 502.00 (Region II) and 1 575.00 kg (Region III) respectively. The objective constraints were Fusarium head blight and pre-harvest sprouting; the subjective constraints were variety selection and layout, poor sowing quality and low seedling quality; social constraints were high cost, low market price and poor efficiency; and ecological constraints were poor soil texture, soil infertility and poor water-and-fertilizer retention. The yield gap of wheat in rice-wheat rotation regions can be effectively reduced by improving yield potential of low and medium-yielding fields. Selecting appropriate wheat varieties and layout, constructing disease forecast system, improving agricultural machinery and social service organizations of plant protection, and strengthening scientific training as well as technological training of new agricultural operators and agricultural machinery technicians are the core means to narrowing the yield gap of wheat in rice-wheat rotation regions at province scale.