In this essay we analysethe global problems which are connected with limited – mainly fossil – resources and population growth, and focusing those possibilities – renewable resources – which can help us to substitute them. The climate change that threatens the entire human race – and has been proven to accelerate due to human activities – requires quick action. Greenhouse gases must be reduced and we have to prepare for weather anomalies associated with climate change. Increasing energy efficiency and the use of environmentally sound technologies are important issues of cost-effectiveness in the economy. Our goal is to develop and generalize technologies with low carbon intensity throughout the total life cycle in order to reduce the effects of pollution and climate change. A shift towards “green economy” also raises doubts and carries risks. It is advisable to analyse the effects of climate change so that humanity may be able to prepare for the changes. The future is not written yet and all options are open, but there is not much time left. If we do not change our behaviour, the idea of a sustainable future will simply be mirage and nothing more. We analyse population growth and the exponentially increasing energy consumption we have crossed the limits of the Earth's biological carrying-capacity. One of the key factors, of showing the way to draft, the future prospects and strategies, which are based on the results of sciences. However, we can attain results only if – with the presence of renewable resources – we use innovations that provide living in the long run.