This article investigates the production and market participation decisions of smallholder cowpea producers in the Northern Region of Ghana. It estimated the factors influencing cowpea production and market participation decisions. A cross-sectional primary data of 300 respondents were sampled from four districts in the northern region of Ghana for the study. We employed the Triple Hurdle Model (THM) for the data analysis. The results reveal that factors influencing cowpea production participation, market participation and intensity of participation are similar and include gender, education, distance to nearest market, own means of transportation, access to market information, proximity good road network, labour, tractor services, value of livestock owned, access to improved cowpea seed, and extension services. Policy measures that promote agricultural diversification should be implemented. Inclusion of cowpea as one of the priority food crops under the government’s flagship “Planting for Food and Jobs programme”. The private sector to take up the sale of improved cowpea seed and provision of tractor hiring services to smallholder cowpea producers. Provision of market spaces, good road infrastructure, and maintaining the free compulsory basic education policy as well as the development of more improved cowpea seed varieties will promote cowpea production and market participation in the Northern Region of Ghana.