The human aspects of the development process are crucial issues everywhere, but particularly in the former socialist countries where the society is in the process of profound transformation. In the areas of fast transformation, the working and living conditions of the population are particularly important and the adjustment for the people is often difficult and painful. Poverty is on the increase. Unemployment, under-utilization of human resources, social polarization and exclusion, have become realities which the transition economies cannot efficiently handle. It will be a long time before these countries have effectively functioning labour markets. The improvement of human security in these countries, integrating into the global market system, depends on the consolidation of the economy, on the progress of education and training.