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Policy Reforms in developing countries have been hindered by the lack of appropriate institutional structures. An application of "The New Institutional Economics" is an analysis of these institutional structures. This research extends and refines the apparatus out of which "The New Institutional Economics" works, in order to make it more responsive to four reported problems and critiques: (1) research into the institutional environment (emphasizing institutional rules such as customs, laws and politics) and research into institutions of governance (focusing on the comparative efficacy of alternative generic forms of governance) has developed in disjunct ways; (2) transaction cost economics deals with polar forms such as markets or hierarchies, to the neglect of intermediate or hybrid forms (long-term contracting, reciprocal trading, regulation and franchising); (3) applications have emphasized measuring transactions to the exclusion of measuring governance; and (4) transactions cost economics have not been applied to non-Western and non-capitalist economies. •


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