Purpose. The purpose of the article is to evaluate the use of agricultural land in the Kharkiv region, to develop and justify possible directions for improving the land use efficiency of the region. Methodology / approach. The methodological basis of the scientific research is a systematic approach to the study of the effectiveness of agricultural land use. To solve certain problems in the research process, we used general scientific and special methods, namely: abstract-logical (for theoretical generalization of conclusions and analysis of research results); economic and statistical (to analyze the current state of land use in agriculture in Kharkiv region); analysis and synthesis (to analyze the impact of individual factors on the efficiency of agricultural land use). Results. The article analyzes the structure of agricultural lands and the effectiveness of their use in the Kharkiv region. Particular emphasis is placed on assessing of impact of the specific gravity of grain and leguminous crops in the structure of arable land on production efficiency. The factors of influence on the efficiency of agricultural lands of Kharkiv region are specified. The cost of agricultural products of small farms in Kharkiv region was found to be much higher than in large enterprises, in particular in agricultural holdings. Therefore, state support measures need to be put in place for their development. Significance of some directions of increase of efficiency of use of agricultural lands of Kharkiv region is substantiated. Originality / scientific novelty. For the first time, it was proposed to stimulate the development of farms for rationalize and improve the efficiency of land use in Kharkiv region. These proposals are based on government support for such farms in order to reduce the cost of agricultural products. Proposals for transition of landowners and land users to intensive forms of production are formed. Practical value / implications. The results of the study can be used in the formation of national and regional programs of support and development of agricultural land use in Ukraine, in particular the Kharkiv region, in order to rationalize and improve the efficiency of land use.