This paper presents some partial results of a study on the financial consequences of lupine breeding in Poland, as well as market conditions for seed trade. Analysis also covers the impact of breeding fees on the financial performance of this business. The research procedure was based on a case study of two domestic plant-breeding companies. The study includs the analysis of funding sources used for lupine seed breeding and the potential financial outcomes of this activity. The plant-breeding companies, covered by this study, are owned by the State Treasury and are organized so that the breeding department is part of a larger agricultural undertaking engaged in multiple production activities. Therefore, accounting data of these undertakings was used in order to determine the economic performance of the breeding department. Also, direct interviews were conducted with breeding department employees and top-level managers. A simulation calculation was also performed under the assumption that the breeding department is an independent undertaking which settles its accounts with the holding on a commercial basis. Therefore, the breeding department was assumed to sell intellectual property consisting of seed fraction “E.” The plant-breeding company is also a sort of seed company which sells the marketable seed fraction K. In summary, lupine breeding is concluded to be a highly profitable business, provided that the plant-breeding departments fully settle their accounts internally and that the breeding fees from seed companies are fully collectable. The development and production potential identified in this study suggests these plants could be used to increase national self-sufficiency in vegetable protein.