Building upon Mark Shucksmith et al. , with respect to proposed improvements to this study by Martin Pelucha et al. , work by Richardo Crescenzi et al.  followed by Alan Collins et al. , this empirical analysis explores the role of structural factors (i.e. place-based characteristics) in shaping EU policy. The analysis considers the shape of policy in terms of the allocation of funds, the effects of these allocations (on change in socio-economic features) and the interaction between cohesion and agricultural policy in the context of regional development in Poland in 2007-2013 on a local (NUTS4) level. Results show that a significant relationship between aggregated (total) expenditure from CP regional and Pillar II CAP measures has not been detected in the programming period under consideration. Rural and regional policy instruments in 2007-2013 were complementary to each other, but also strongly related to the characteristics of the region (such as size, population, farmland) and, therefore require greater adaptation to development opportunities and limitations. It was also shown that some synergy of the impact of both programmes can only be indicated in the case of development of technical infrastructure (ie. water supply systems).