The data for this article is drawn from the research work on participatory epidemiology and gender in Ethiopia. The research project conducted focus group discussions (FGDs) and household survey in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Ninety-two focus group discussions were held with adult men and women, and youth male and female groups. In addition, a household survey from 646 respondents, 236 male household heads (36.5%), 88 women household heads (13.6%) and 322 women in male headed households (49.9%) were conducted. Using data on gender roles from the study we analysed gender differentials and the intensity of involvement of household members in small ruminant management and husbandry practices in the study sites. Our results suggest that all household members participate in the different small ruminant husbandry and management practices with varying degrees of involvement across agro-ecologies and from the perspectives of the different categories of respondents. Despite prevailing perceptions that women control small ruminants, men control the decision-making aspect of small ruminant husbandry and management practices whereas women are mainly responsible for executing all the husbandry related roles. Considering gendered perceptions about gender roles as well as agro-ecological dimensions, they potentially have important implications especially for the design of animal health interventions in the study areas.