The aim of the research was to assess the changes of competitiveness of Polish agriculture compared to other European countries with similar structure of production: Denmark, Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. With Poland’s accession to the EU, these countries became the competitors for Polish food producers and exporters on the Single European Market. Competitiveness of agriculture was indicated by the potential of production (i.e. resources of factors of production, relations between them, area and economic structures of farms) and productivity of production factors. The research was conducted for the years 2005-2013 and was based on Eurostat data. The results showed the persistence of a relatively low competitiveness of Polish agriculture against the agriculture of the selected countries.