Studies on the economics of agricultural production in organic farms are carried out on a small scale but deliver important information about the situation of organic agricultural producers. The aim of this paper is to examine the economic and production results of organic farms cultivating winter wheat and winter rye in relation to the results of conventional farms (by way of case study). The paper used actual accounting data collected in the Agrokoszty system and Polish FADN and direct interviews with organic farmers. For detailed comparison of the economic results the methodology of calculating gross margin was used. When compared to conventional farms, the winter wheat and winter rye production results were weaker in organic farms, and a lower yield of grain was demonstrated. The selling price of organic grain was more favourable only for winter wheat. The surveyed farmers indicate the will to continue organic production. However, it is necessary to develop the organic product market and for further financial support for this production sector.