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This study estimates the effect of participating in extension programs on agricultural productivity in India. Using data from India‘s National Sample Survey 59th Round, farmlevel productivity is estimated by a stochastic frontier analysis, and the effect of participation is estimated econometrically by the control function approach. Technical efficiency as measured by total factor productivity was approximately five times higher among farmers participating in private extension programs than among farmers participating in government programs. Among other extension programs, Krishi Vigyan Kendra programs demonstrate greater contributions to productivity than programs by primary cooperative societies and credit agencies.


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