Estimates for 1995 suggest that only a tenth of persistently poor counties in the South may have reduced their poverty rate to less than 20 percent during the early 1990's, despite the overall strength of the rural economy. More Southern nonmetro counties appear to have fallen back into deeper poverty. Trends in population, income, employment, and business formation corroborate the poverty trends. Empowerment Zones, Enterprise Communities, and Champion Communities have been instituted in some of these areas. More areas may need broad-based development strategies to substantially reduce poverty in the rural South.