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Despite being mandatory according to Indonesian law, Genetically Modified (GM) food is most of the time not labelled when it is exposed to consumers. The lack of efficient official controls due to a lack of resources and misaligned exercise of discretion is often determined as a major reason. At the international level, the Codex Standard on GM food labelling is not yet available. The endless debate between the US and the EU on how to regulate the GMO is one of the major causes of the deadlock negotiation on the issue of GM food labelling at the Codex level. Nevertheless, the central role of the US in recent mega Free Trade Agreements (FTA): TPP and TTIP will reshape the GM food labelling regulation globally. In that sense, enforcement of GM food labelling regulation hence requires new pathways. The effectiveness of enforcement of GM food labelling relies on the effective interplay of the definition, scope, desired labelling requirements, and voluntary pathway. We hence suggest to reshaping the GM food labelling regulation in light of such a holistic approach based on the desired Appropriate Level of Protection (ALOP) in the framework of international laws, taking into account a specific, developing-country-oriented application of the Food Safety Objective (FSO).


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