The objective of this article is to deal with the establishment and mission of the agricultural extension in the Slovak Republic, to deal with its development during the economic transition and preparation for the EU accession, as well as for the after accession period.The extension service in the Slovak Republic was established on its institutional basis in 1998. Due to the lack of financial resources and not fully completed architecture of the whole system, the agricultural extension was not in position to fulfill the expectations of the agribusinessmen. After the accession of Slovakia to the EU, in 2007, this system was innovated in order to meet the conditions of Cross Compliance. In the Slovak Republic, 131 extentionists have been recently certified, 77 of them are considered to be generalists and 54 are specialists. The one extentionist services 9 370.38 ha of agricultural land and 44 farms. To the most important challenges of the Slovak extension service belong the improvement of the information dissemination about the possibilities of using the EU funds, the focus of the agro-food sector on more effective, dynamic and competitive market with agrarian commodities, the adaptation of agriculture on climate changes and on the sustainable management of natural resources in the agriculture.