The gender related issues are very complex. The paper deals with the role of rural women in agriculture and rural development in Europe. Sustainable agriculture, rural development and food security cannot be achieved without the full and equal participation of both women and men in rural areas. Europe and Central Asia are the only regions in the world where agriculture is not the main employer of the rural women as well as the men. The disappearance of the centrally planned economy, continuing social and economic transition, European Union enlargement, Common Agricultural Policy and aligned reforms, globalization, and impact of climate change, have affected rural populations and in particular rural women. The policies and programs to improve women's access to land and assets remain still important.