This study compared profitability and efficiency of cassava production among government and nongovernment assisted farmers association in Osun State, Nigeria. Data were collected using a multistage sampling procedure and analyzed with the aid of descriptive statistics, stochastic frontier and budgetary analyses. The results showed that members of government-assisted farmers’ associations had better access (100%) to credit (e.g. production credit) compared to their counterparts (35.8%) who were not members of government-assisted farmers’ associations. Average yield (2,370.15 kg/ha) and farm revenue (₦514, 600.00) were higher among cassava farmers that were members of government-assisted farmers’ associations and significantly different from those that were non-members. Results further revealed that members of government-assisted farmers’ association were more efficient (72.4%) than farmers that were non-members in the associations in the study area. Socioeconomic factors such as age of the farmers, access to extension service and membership in government-assisted farmers’ associations were the major factors determining farm level efficiency among the cassava farmers. On average, the profitability ratio (Return on Investment-ROI) for members of government-assisted farmers’ association was ₦2.32 per naira invested and ₦1.16 per naira invested for farmers who were not members. The study concluded that cassava farmers that belonged to government-assisted association were more efficient and were making more profit than their counterparts who did not belong to government-assisted associations. Therefore, it is recommended that government should take steps to ensure that these advantages are extended to all farmers in order to significantly increase cassava production, agricultural GDP, food security and equity.