Among agricultural products in Iran, pistachio is one of the major export products that can produce foreign currency. The present study evaluated factors affecting pistachio export earnings instability and its effect on agricultural export during the studied period. For this purpose, export earnings instability index was calculated using "average absolute difference between export earnings and its trend". The Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) was used for estimating models over period 1973-2010. The results indicated that pistachio commodity concentration index had negative effect, but pistachio product instability and gaps of exchange rate had direct relationship with pistachio export earnings instability. Also, the results of the estimation of agricultural export function indicated that pistachio export earnings instability had negative and significant impact on export agriculture.