The Chinese aquaculture industry, which employs millions of farmers and provides low cost protein for consumers worldwide, is critically important to domestic economic growth and global food security. Central to the safety of aquaculture products are farmers, who are ultimately responsible for following good production practices. We assess how farmers’ value system is related to on-farm decision-making, with particular attention given to the overuse of antibiotics, a major problem in this industry. Primary data was gathered through farmer interviews in three aquaculture-producing provinces in Southern China. Using a best-worst scaling framework, we find that producers care most about attributes and practices that are directly related to their operation and are impartial to consumer preferences. Our results show that producers who value food safety the most are more likely to stop using antibiotics in their operations.