USDA, ARS, in cooperation with other institutions, has been conducting research on pickleworm and melonworm (Diaphania spp.: Pyralidae) for several years. Recent advances in this research are given. Topics discussed include: research on plant resistance in cucumber and squash, role of oviposition stimulancs, foreign exploration and importation of parasites from South America and the Caribbean, and population dynamics of Diaphania spp. in tropical Florida.