In Mali, yields of dryland cereals—with the exception of maize—have stagnated. Low rates of productivity growth are attributed in part to limited use of mineral fertilizer and declining land quality. In the Sudanian Savanna of Mali, as elsewhere in the West African Sahel, dryland cereals are grown on fields managed collectively and individually by extended families that span multiple generations and multiple households, headed by an elder patriarch who is responsible for organizing land and labor to meet staple food needs. We refer to these, as does the government of Mali, by the term Enterprise Agricole Familiale.


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