Using data from multiple sources we explore the dynamic growth and transformation that is taking place in the Nigerian poultry subsector. We find that increased consumption of poultry products in Nigeria is occurring alongside rapid urbanization and growth in the poultry industry. In just one decade, the volume of feed used in Nigeria skyrocketed from 300 thousand to 1.8 million tons – a 600% climb. Contrary to the idea that Nigeria is inundated with illegal imports of poultry products, we find that domestic production covers about 85% of domestic consumption, and (illegal) imports appear to be only about 15% of consumption. This indicates that efforts towards addressing illegal smuggling of poultry products into Nigeria should be supplemented with at least equal effort to ensuring the sustainable growth of domestic poultry production in the country.