Social protection is at the heart of attaining the Global Agenda 2030’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Africa’s Agenda 2063. This synthesis reviews the institutions, policies, laws, implementation plans and evidence that are aligned to support social protection in Uganda. Evidence shows that there are many vulnerabilities within the economy and that females are at a greater disadvantage than males. Hence, there is a need for multi-faceted interventions from both state and non-state actors. Policy frameworks, particularly the National Social Protection Policy, are in place. However, the extent to which this policy is being implemented was not ascertained because it is still new. The funds allocated to social protection in Uganda are still small and insufficient. Actions taken by the institutions responsible for spearheading social protection are not adequate, as vulnerability is still high and uncoordinated interventions continue to proceed with no operational guidelines. Limitations on the harmonization and financial commitment of the government with regard to the national rollout of cash transfer grants to all elderly eligible persons will result in a failure to achieve social inclusiveness. For successful policy action, it is important to ensure institutional coordination, engage stakeholders at the onset of programme conceptualization, include the informal sector, liberalise the pension sector, and strengthen non-financial social protection initiatives.