The aim of the study was to determine changes in the level of utilization of potential of yielding of cereals in in Poland in the years 1992-2015. In the study were used data from Central Statistical Office and Research Centre for Cultivar Testing. It was found that the level of utilization of potential yielding of cereals varieties in agricultural production in Poland grew slowly and in period 2010-2015 it was 50%, while in period 1992-1995 it was only 44%. A higher level of utilization of potential yielding were observed for intensively produced cereals (over 50%) while for extensively species of cereals it was only about 40%.In the analyzed period, yielding of cereal in production increased in proportion to the increase in yield in field trials, so progress obtained in in plant breeding was effectively disseminated in production. Further reducing of the yield gap can occur only if agriculture production on poor soils will reduced and will be improved commonly used production technology.