The analysis presented points to considerable significance of return migrations in the process of the development of rural areas affected with high depopulation as a consequence of emigration after the access to the EU. Considerable potential of the migrants who are currently abroad may be successfully used to improve the functioning of peripheral areas and to repair the deformed demographic structure. Permanent local development must be based on stable human capital. Accumulation of financial capital performed by migrants from rural areas will contribute to the improvement of such areas only when trends related to the movement of human resources are reversed. This process must be related not only to the ad hoc improvement of the situation on the local market as regards the inflow of funds in the form of remittances and the presence of the multiplier effect, but should also be related to the permanent return of migrants and their families as well as investment of fixed assets and using the experience and contacts from abroad.