The movement toward bio-economy means the complex system changes, it concerns such wide and important aspects as food security, resource efficiency, biodiversity, job creation, GDP production. Purpose of the article – generalizing of the basic parameters of food security and outlining of the impact directions of the bio-economy. There are analyzed the meaning of food security in the article, described the links between food security and the bioeconomy, determined that the bioeconomy has the potential to improve food security through the development of more efficient systems of agricultural production which can significantly increase the production of food by increasing the sustainability of the agricultural sector, which is essential in the long term. We consider that there is some scope for the development of the bioeconomy in Ukraine, including the sector of biofuels production and «green» sector without endangering food security. Dilemmas «food or fuel» for Ukraine is not acute at this stage, however, the benefits from the bioeconomy transition are quite significant.