The movement of invasive species is exacerbated by inadequately inspected massive shipments of agricultural products and propagating materials to and from developing countries. Drastic reductions in government spending in developing countries have weakened their research, extension and regulatory capabilities needed to cope with new pests and pathogens. CIAT has modified its commodity-oriented programs to include research on solutions to harmful new invasive species. Invasive viruses studied by CIAT include, rice hoja blanca, rice stripe necrosis, a naturally occurring seed-borne recombinant virus of common bean, bean severe mosaic, bean calico mosaic, peanut stripe, Frogskin disease of cassava, African cassava mosaic, African oil palm ringspot virus, African oil palm chlorotic ring virus, various unidentified exotic viruses of tropical fruits and vegetables. Insect vectors studies include Bemisia spp., the rice mite, Steneotarsonemus spinki, and the rice thrips, Stenchaetotrips biformis, Thrips palmi, Trialeurodes spp., Aleurotrachelus socialis, Tetraleurodes sp. and Aleurodicus spp. and natural enemies of these vectors.