Plant pests and pathogens have the potential to emerge and spread rapidly, cause severe losses, and threaten food security worldwide. Such a threat is increased by the rise of commercial exchanges of germplasm and fresh produce and by global warming. This threat is particularly high under island or archipelago habitat conditions. Hence the need to anticipate sanitary crises by developing appropriate surveillance and response systems for the control of pests and pathogens, especially those affecting crops important to food security and economic balance. Such systems are being developed in the Caribbean, and in particular in the French West Indies, through the PANDOeR (PAthologies Nouvelles: Détection, Observations, eRadication / New pathologies: diagnoses, observations and eradication) Project. An overview of this project is provided. Components of pest and pathogen control strategies, such as surveillance networks, data exchanges and joint response strategies, are discussed.