The article presents the structure of land acreage and yield indicators of the leading agricultural crops of Republic of Moldova and the Odessa region in years 2000–2014, as well as the graphs of dynamics and trend equation of crop yield of grains and legumes, winter wheat, corn, sunflower, fruits and grapes within the specified period. A comparative yield analysis of specified crops of Moldova and the Odessa region is performed and average mid-year growth rates are identified. The levels of potential land productivity are also explained as historically highest, achieved during the past three years within a 15-year research period for each specified type of crops. Comparing the attained and potential average yield levels for each type of crops during 2000–2014, the article determines the reserves of land productivity growth in the industry. An evaluation of growth of land productivity for each type of crops is provided and the types of production are identified. The levels of potential land productivity are explained for all major types of crops and the indicators of growth reserves are determined. Evaluation of productivity growth for each type of crops is performed and the type of production is determined.