Subject and purpose of work: The object and goal of the study is to present general development factors of bioeconomy and the desired directions of structural changes in this sector of economy. Materials and methods: This study was written with the use of publications devoted to this issue and documents of various institutions, especially those of the European Union. Results: The study attempts to demonstrate the importance of bioeconomy and the need for structural changes in bioeconomy. The authors highlight the need for transition within the social capitalism system from the concept of supply chains through agricultural complexes to the organisation of bioclusters. Conclusions: Evolutionary changes in the structure and functioning of bioeconomy are altered by the nature of competition between business partners in supply chains, which contributes to the consolidation of consumer benefits and counteracts over-exploitation of natural resources.