Subject and purpose of work: The deliberations undertaken within the article concern identification of the phenomenon of businesses indebtedness in the Polish reality, inseparably linked with the economic security of companies in the contemporary market environment. The aim of this study is to show the interactions occurring between the phenomenon of indebtedness and data on bankruptcy of businesses in Poland, and their interpretation. Materials and methods: The work was elaborated based on the analysis and synthesis of subject literature, statistical data, analysts’ opinions, as well as on research and the author’s own considerations. Results: Discussion on the interdisciplinary approach of the concept of economic security, and the irreversible consequences of its incompetent management. Lead to reflections on the creditor–debtor relations. It shows a change in the mentality and in actions of Polish debtor over the last 20 years; its consequences for companies in the form of bankruptcy/insolvency, and proposals for improvements introduced by the State–level regulations. Conclusion: Regardless of the business in which the company operates, the imposing of uncollected debts on a creditor may threaten their and related entities’ existence. Researches indicate a need for the amendment to restructuring and insolvency law.