Over the last several decades, changes to production technologies have significantly increased output from the primary sector. The contribution of improved genetics has been variously estimated, and the impacts of genetic engineering have received much attention. The present research estimated the economic impact of four modern biotechnologies (other than genetic engineering) on the primary sector. Information from interviews with key informants was incorporated into a cost-benefit analysis to estimate these impacts. The net contribution was estimated at $266 million per year, with impacts spread unevenly through the sector and across biotechnologies.