The project titled "Rural Development Monitoring" is a multiannual research endeavor, implemented within the European Fund for the Development of Polish Villages and the Institute of Rural and Agricultural Development at the Polish Academy of Sciences. The aim of the project is constant observation of socio-economic changes taking place in rural areas in Poland. The first stage of the research identifies the spatial differentiation of economic and social phenomena in Poland as well as defines their structures and levels as of 2010. The socio-economic development here is understood as a certain shape of economic structures which allows generating satisfactory income and meeting rising community development needs at the very local level. Community participation, better access to education and public services or higher standards of living, etc. are of the same importance. Meeting both social and economic needs makes rural areas a good place of living. The level of meeting the needs can be identified with the certain level of reached development. The data set consists of over 120 thousand information obtained from state institutions, as well as from surveys conducted in 2173 municipal offices.