The paper deals with the problem of young farmers in Poland at the background of the situation in the European Union presented from the perspective of theory, their role in the national and European agriculture, support by the Common Agricultural Policy and the national agricultural policy, and forms and effects of support. The paper is based on literature reviews, the EU and national legal documents, trade and statistical information. The key effects of the paper refer to the problem of defining young farmers, determining the form and scope of aid provided and characteristics, grounds and effects of farming by this group of farmers in Poland. A vital cognitive element is analysis of applications submitted by young farmers and results of their consideration by national institutions and verification of awarded aid and payments. The main conclusion is that it is necessary to consider and solve the problems of young farmers in connection with other socio-economic problems of rural areas, including the problem of old people.