In this paper, with 511 rice landraces in the Taihu Lake area as test materials, we select 19 starch synthesis-related intragenic molecular markers to detect the genetic quality of starch, and compare them with 86 bred varieties. The results show that the average polymorphic information content (PIC) of japonica landraces is 0.1726, slightly higher than the average PIC (0.1101) of the bred japonica rice varieties. Based on Nei's genetic distance between materials, UPGMA method is used for clustering, and all study materials are divided into 6 groups. Group I mainly includes indica rice, the bred japonica rice varieties are mainly concentrated in the first half of Group II and Group III, and the japonica landraces are mainly concentrated in the second half of Group III, and Group Ⅳ, Ⅴ, Ⅵ. Both of them are in different regions, and there has been genetic differentiation. According to the national standard of high quality rice, it is found that many rice landraces in the Taihu Lake area have good quality and traits, and these varieties can be used for future high quality breeding.