The dairy industry plays an important role in the development of Brazilian agribusiness, and the state of Minas Gerais is the main producer. The search for mechanisms that increase competitiveness in the sector becomes a key factor for the development of this productive chain. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the factors that could explain the milk producers in the efficiency levels in the mesoregion of Zona da Mata – MG, based on quantile regressions. Efficiency measures were measured by Data Envelopment Analysis-DEA procedure. The results indicate that in the short term, milk producers have a high degree of technical efficiency. In relation to inefficiency, it happens by operating in an incorrect scale production. It is concluded that the efficiency of milk producers in the Zona da Mata - MG can be high in the short term through the adoption of advanced technologies in the activity, combined with access to technical assistance in production and resource management.