Nowadays, food security continues to be a huge problem, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper tries to analyse the problem of food security from the point of view of food regime analysis. The implementation of the different food regimes in Mauritania has had important consequences for the country’s food security because it has generated an increasing dualism between consumption patterns and provisioning systems in rural and urban areas. The Mauritanian case allows us to note that the European model to achieve the food security existing in the Second Food Regime did not apply in countries such as Mauritania. Moreover, Mauritania shows us that the proposal for food security in the Third Food Regime, that is, the access to the food world markets, has not been able to mitigate the food insecurity of the country.