The correlation between poverty and vulnerability, and the role social protection ex-ante measures and ex-post measures can play in reducing household poverty and household vulnerability mitigation measures, is the main concern of this paper. In this study, we estimate ex-ante poverty and vulnerability among the sampled household heads from the post-conflict district of Katakwi in Teso-sub-region. Using primary data collected from February to August 2016, the preliminary results show that, household vulnerability to poverty is more prevalent in conflict affected areas and it is not the same with those households living in secure and peaceful areas. There is a high level of household susceptibility to falling back into poverty in the near future in conflict affected areas. It is suggested that, social protection ex-ante measures can be used to prevent households from becoming poor as well as ex-post measures to alleviate those already trapped in poverty and vulnerability to escape poverty and vulnerability. In designing policies one should take note of the diverse nature of poverty and vulnerability. For the chronically poor households who lack economic assets, priority should be given to reduction of consumption fluctuations and building up asset base through a combination of protective, preventive promotive and transformative programmes.