Today, Nigeria is the first economic power of Africa. It is thus a rich country with regard to its climate, precipitation, varieties of grounds, the surface of arable land, and size of its population and has the potential required becoming the nourishing earth of Africa. However, Nigeria records an overdrawn trade balance, 70 % of its population is considered as poor man and 6 % is underfed. It is due to mismanagement of the available resources as well as to an inadequacy of agricultural policies. The main result of the study is that Nigeria will can in a near future, if the fight against the disorder is won, to fill the excess demands of vegetable culture of its African partners if it increases substantially the cultivated surfaces. As regards the products of fishing and the breeding, this country requires standing out the implementation of renovation policies of more or less long duration. The used data are the ones going from 1960 till 2013, before the Boko Haram sect perturbs strongly the economy of Nigeria.